Minggu, 11 Maret 2012

Sejarah Batik Solo


History pembatikan in Indonesia closely related to the development of the kingdom of Majapahit and the spread of the teachings of Islam in the Land of Java. In some notes, the development of batik is done many times in the kingdom of Mataram, and the work of Yogyakarta and Solo.

So this batik art in Indonesia has been known since the times of work and growing Majapahit kingdom and the kings next. The expansion began this batik art become the property of the people of Indonesia and Java in particular tribe is after the end of XVIII century or early-to-XIX centuries. Batik is produced until all batik-century to early XX and cap batik, known after the war a new world out kesatu or around 1920. The connection with the dissemination of the teachings of Islam. Many areas in central Java is perbatikan areas santri and then become a tool perjaungan Batik by economic figures pedangan against Muslim Dutch economy.

Batik art is art in the image on the cloth for clothing that was one of the cultural kings before the era of Indonesia. Originally batik is limited only in the Palace and the results for the king's clothes and the family and its followers. Because many of the cohort who live outside the king's Palace, the batik art is carried out by them and the Palace are ditempatnya each.

Old-old batik art is imitated by the people nearest and further extended the work to be women in the household to fill leisure time. Next, batik was the only family clothing Palace, and then become something that people tune, both women and men. Of white cloth that is used at that time is the result of the texture itself.

Materials are used coloring of plants native to Indonesia made from, among others: tree mengkudu, high, soga, indigo, and sodanya made from soda ash, salt and made from tanahlumpur.

Jaman Majapahit Batik has become a culture in the kingdom Majahit, pat be in the area of Mojokerto and Tulong Court. Mojoketo region is closely related to the Majapahit kingdom during the origin and first name Majokerto related to Majapahit. Relation to the development of batik Majapahit origin developing in Tulong Court pembatikan development is the history of this area, can be extracted from the legacy of the age in the kingdom of Majapahit. At that time the area Tulungagung part consists of swamps in the history of the famous name of Bonorowo, which at the time of Majapahit bekembangnya area occupied by a benama Adipati Kalang, and not subject to the kingdom of Majapahit.

Told that in the action polisionil been by Majapahati, Adipati Kalang killed in the battle seems dikabarkan around the village that is now called Kalangbret. Thus the officers of the kingdom of Majapahit and keluara who lived and live diwilayah Bonorowo or Tulungagung now called, among others, also bringing the arts to create original batik.

Pembatikan in the area now located in Mojokerto Kwali, Mojosari, and Betero Sidomulyo. Outside the region is in the Mojokerto Regency Jombang. At the end of the XIX-century to have some people that is known for batik craft in Mojokerto, materials used at that time a white woven fabric itself and the medicines from batik soga jambal, mengkudu, nila tom, and so forth.
Drugs outside the country after the new world war kesatu sold by Chinese traders-traders in Mojokerto. Batik cap, known along with the entry of drugs from abroad batik. Cap made in Bangil-entrepreneurs and businessmen can buy batik Mojokerto dipasar Porong Sidoarjo, Porong this market before the economic crisis the world is known as a bustling market, where the results of batik production Kedungcangkring and sold many Jetis Sidoarjo. Time the economic crisis, the batik Mojoketo join paralysis, because the majority of small-business entrepreneurs. Activities after the crisis arising pembatikan back to Japan to enter Indonesia, and the Japanese occupation of pembatikan paralyzed again. Activities pembatikan appear again after the revolution which has become the Mojokerto occupation.

Typical of batik Kalangbret of Mojokerto is almost the same as the output batik-batik of Yogyakarta, which is basically white and brown color coraknya young and old blue. Which is known since more than seabad the place pembatikan didesa Majan and Simo. This village also has a history as a holdover from the era of Prince Diponegoro years of war in 1825.

Although pembatikan known since time Majapahait but the development of batik start since spread rapidly didaerah and Surakarta, Central Java Yogyakata, at the time the kingdom in this region. Indeed, it appears that the development of batik in Mojokerto and Tulong Court over the next dipenagruhi pattern batik of Yogyakarta and Solo.

Clash between berkecamuknya in the army with the Dutch colonial army troops-some of the prince Diponegoro's troops-troops Kyai Mojo bow out towards the east and until now the Majan. Since the era of Dutch colonial era to the independence of this village are Majan village Merdikan (Special Region), and the head of a village priest who Uirun status-temurun.Pembuatan batik Majan is instinct (survival) from the art of making batik is Diponegoro war era.

Color babaran batik Majan and Simo is unique because of the color babarannya red light (from the skin mengkudu) and color from the other tom. Setra as batik since erst famous village also didaerah Sembung, that the majority of the batik comes from the Sala Tulungagung come in at the end of the XIX-th century. Only now there are still several families from the Sala pembatikan who lived didaerah Sembung. Apart from places tesebut there are also areas in Trenggalek pembatikan and also some in Kediri, but the nature pembatikan part of the household and babarannya batik.

The Islamic era in the history pembatikan East Java is in Ponorogo, which kisahnya related to the spread of Islamic teachings in this area. History of Batik. Mentioned problems batik art didaerah Ponorogo closely related to the development of the religion of Islam and kingdoms first. Perhaps, in the area Batoro Katong, there's a descendant of the Majapahit kingdom Katong Raden Raden Patah's younger brother. Batoro Katong is what brought Islam to Ponorogo petilasan and now is that there is a mosque didaerah Patihan Wetan.

Selanjutanya development, in Ponorogo, Tegalsari in areas that have a boarding diasuh Kyai Hasan Basri or known as Kyai Tegalsari Court. Pesantren Tegalsari than teaching Islam also teaches science ketatanegaraan, science, literature and war. A disciple of the famous field of literature is Tegalsari Raden Ronggowarsito. Kyai Hasan Basri is taken by a son-king Kraton Solo.

Batik art at that time limited in the new environment Palace. Because my daughter Solo palace became the wife of the Kyai Hasan Basri dibawalah to Tegalsari and followed by escort-pengiringnya. besides that there are families Kraton Solo dipesantren this study. These events bring the art out of the Palace bafik to Ponorogo. Young people are educated in Tegalsari if this is out, people will donate in the dharma batiknya in the fields of religion and kepamongan.

Regional perbatikan long that we can see now is the area that is Kauman Kepatihan Wetan from here and now extended to the villages Ronowijoyo, Mangunsuman, Kertosari, Setono, Cokromenggalan, Kadipaten, Nologaten, Bangunsari, Cekok, and Ngunut Banyudono. That time the drugs used in the pembatikan is made in the country's own timberman among others; tree tom, mengkudu, wood high. While kainputihnyajugamemakai material made from weaving pickaback. White import bam, known in Indonesia about the late 19 th century.
Making batik Ponorogo new cap in the world after the war that brought the first by a Chinese named Kwee Seng's Banyumas. Regional Ponorogo early 20th century famous batiknya in indigo coloring that does not fade and that is why the batik-entrepreneur from Banyumas Solo and provide employment to many entrepreneurs in the batik-entrepreneurs Ponorogo. Dikenalnya due to the production of batik cap Ponorogo petama the world after the war until the outbreak of war with the world's second famous batik is batik cap kasarnya mori blue. Market batik cap rough Ponorogo and famous throughout the country.

Batik from Yogyakarta and Solo-work in the kingdom of Solo and Yogyakarta sekitamya century 17.18 and 19, batik and developing area, particularly in the area of Java. Originally batik simply hobby of royalty in titivate through clothing. However, further development, community pleh batik perdagamgan commodity to be developed.

Batik Solo, the color and pattern in the process of traditional batik cap or in the batik tulisnya. The material used for coloring is still a lot of the materials in the country such as soga Java is well known that since the first. Patterns, among others, remain popular with the "Sidomukti" and "Sidoluruh".

While Origins pembatikan didaerah Yogyakarta, known since the kingdom of Mataram to-I with a raj any Panembahan Senopati. Regional pembatikan first is didesa Plered. Pembatikan at that time limited in the family environment is done by the Palace women parlormaid queen. From here on the broad pembatikan first trap on the other Palace family of wife and servant of the palace-army. At the official ceremony the family kingdom Palace both men and women wearing clothes with kombonasi batik and lurik. Because of this kingdom get visits from people and people interested in the clothes-clothes that are used by the family and the Palace imitated by the people and eventually meluaslah pembatikan out of the Palace walls.

As a result of the war time period between the first family of kings and the former Dutch colony, many families who flee the king and didaerah-settling, among other new areas to Banyumas, Pekalongan, and kedaerah East Ponorogo, Tulungagung and so forth. Meluasny a pembatikan this area until kedaerah-region according to the historical development of the struggle of Indonesia to begin the century-18. Families flee Palace which is what the pembatikan all over the island and the existing natural and developed according to the new area.

Prince Diponegoro war against the Netherlands, urged the prince and his family and their followers to leave the kingdom. They then spread to the East and West. Then in the areas that the new family and develop a cohort prince Diponegoro batik.

East to Solo and Yogyakarta batik perfect batik patterns existing in Mojokerto and Tulong Court. It also spread to Gresik, Surabaya and Madura. Are to the West berkem batik-bang in Banyumas, Pekalongan, Tegal, Cirebon.

Batik development in other cities in the development of batik Banyumas is based in the region brought about by Sokaraja cohort-cohort Diponegero Prince after the battle space-inya year 1830, most of them ap-menet Banyumas didaerah. Followers that the time was famous and he Najendra develop batik dye in Sokaraja. Materials used mori results homespun and drug use pewama tom tree, tree mengkudu pace and gave the red kesemuan yellow.

Long run pembatikan crawling on people Sokaraja and at the end of the XIX century to relate directly to pembatik didaerah Ponorogo and Solo. Regional pembatikan in Banyumas already known since the first motif and wama and especially now called batik Banyumas. After the world war began kesatu pembatikan also be done by China in addition to their trade batik material.

Similar to pembatikan in Pekalongan. The cohort Prince Diponegoro who lived in this area and develop business in the batik sekitara coastal areas, namely in the area other than their own Pekalongan, batik grow rapidly in Buawaran, Pekajangan and Wonopringgo. There is pembatikan in these areas almost simultaneously with pembatikan other areas around the XIX-th century. Pembatikan didaerah-development of the region than outside of Yogyakarta and Solo in close conjunction with the historical development of the kingdom of Yogyakarta and Solo.

Pembatikan spread out from the Palace after the end of war The Palace and the many families who move outside the area kedaerah-Yogya and Solo because they do not want kejasama with the colonial government. Palace is a family-entrant kedaerah new followers, and there continues to batik craft and then proceed to a main job.

Batik pattern in this new area is also adjusted with the surrounding area. Especially viewed from the Pekalongan and the process is influenced by many designya batik from Demak. Until the beginning of the XX-th century the process is known pembatikan batik morinya with artificial materials in the country and also import some. After the war new world kesatu known batik stamp fabrication and use of medicines made abroad Germany and the UK.

In the early 20th century was first known in Pekajangan is pertenunan that produce stagen thread and simply dipintal own. Some years later a new pembatikan who are known by the people who work disektor pertenunan this. Growth and development pembatikan more rapidly from pertenunan stagen and ever-labor in the sugar mill and Wonopringgo Tirto fled to batik companies, because the higher wages of sugar factories.

Pembatikan are known in Tegal end of the XIX-th century and that the time used home-made which is taken from plants: pace / mengkudu, indigo, soga wood and homespun kainnya. Color Tegal batik was first sogan and babaran gray after the indigo plant, and then increased to a red-blue color. Tegal batik market was already out, among other areas West Java brought by the businessman-entrepreneur in the way their feet and this is the history of batik in the Tasik Ciamis and adjacent settler-migrants from other cities of Central Java batik.

At the beginning of the XX-th century is known mori import and import medicines known after a new world war kesatu. Entrepreneur-in Tegal batik entrepreneurs mostly weak in capital and raw materials obtained from the Pekalongan and with credit and batiknya sold in China that provide the raw material is credit. Time the economic crisis pembatik-Tegal pembatik participate lethargic and snappy new back around 1934 years until the beginning of the second world war. Japan entered the time of death pembatikan again.

Pila thus pembatikan history Purworejo in parallel with the Kebumen pembatikan in Yogyakarta that is coming from around the XI century. Pekembangan batik handicrafts in Purworejo Kebumen compared with the more rapid in Kebumen. Production together with the Yogyakarta and other areas Banyumas.

While in the Bayat area, Sub-Tembayat Kebumen Klaten is located approximately 21 km to the East of the city Klaten. Bayat this area is the village that is located dikaki but the land is barren mountains and a minus. This area, including environmental Karesidenan Kabupaten Klaten and Surakarta and the history here pembatikan certainly closely related to the history of the kingdom of Surakarta Palace first. Bayat villages now have pertilasan that can be visited by the population in certain times of "grave of Sunan Bayat" in the top of the mountain Jabarkat. So pembatikan didesa Bayat is already there since the times of work first. Employers in the batik-entrepreneurs Bayat was most of the batik craft and labor in Solo.

Meanwhile, in Kebumen pembatikan known about the early XIX century-which was brought by immigrants, immigrants from Yogya in order to spread the religion of Islam, among others, which is known: PenghuluNusjaf. He is what the batik and Kebumen in the first place is to settle the East Lukolo time now and there are also monument to the efforts he mosque. The process of batik in Kebumen lantern-called brother or Blambangan and the process is done in the last Banyumas / Solo. Around the beginning of XX century-used to create patterns that turmeric capnya made of wood. Motives Kebumen is: trees, birds-burungan. The material used is the other tree pace, and kemudu nila tom.

Use of medicines imported in Kebumen known around 1920 that introduced by Bank Rakyat Indonesia employees who leave akhimya materials preparation itself, because to save time. Use of the copper cap is known around the year 1930 brought by Purnomo of Yogyakarta. Regional pembatikan in Kebumen is didesa: Watugarut, Tanurekso a lot and there are several other villages.

View the defection-defection existing and stories that come down from earlier generations, it is estimated didaerah Tasikmalaya batik known since the era of "Tarumanagara" where survival is the current number of trees there Tarum obtained useful un-tuk that time of making batik . Heritage village that now there is still pembatikan dikerja-kan is Wurug with the famous batik kerajinannya, Sukapura, Mangunraja, Maronjaya and Tasikmalaya city.

First center of government and the crowd is the famous village Sukapura, Indihiang located dipinggir Tasikmalaya city now. Approximately the end of the century to the beginning of the XVII and XVIII century-a result of the war between the kingdoms in Central Java, many of the local population: Tegal, Pekalongan, and Ba-nyumas Holy kedaerah wander the West and settled in Ciamis and Tasikmalaya. Most of them this is the batik-entrepreneurs to the region and towards the West to trade batik. With the advent of this new, dikenallah next pembutan good use soga originally from Central Java. Batik Tasikmalaya production now is a mix of original batik-batik Pekalongan, Tegal, Banyumas, Holy of divers patterns and colors.
Pembatikan known in Ciamis around XIX-century after the war Diponegoro, where cohort-cohort Diponegoro many who leave Yogyakarta, to the south. Some who have settled didaerah Banyumas and there are some who continue to travel south and settled in Ciamis and Tasikmalaya now. They wander about with this keluargany a new place and settle into the setting and continue to live and work. Some of them have the expertise in the craft pembatikan as household work for women. Long run this work can be developed on the surrounding population due to the association's daily or family relationship. The material used for homespun kainnya results catnya and materials made from trees such as: mengkudu, tom tree, and so forth.

Motif batik Ciamis results are mixed, batik from Central Java and its own regional influence, especially Garutan motifs and colors. Until the early-to-early XX century in Ciamis pembatikan developing little by little, from their own needs into the production market. Are in the area of Cirebon batik kaintannya have with the kingdom in the aerah, namely Kanoman, Kasepuahn and Keprabonan. The main source of batik Cirebon, same case as in Yogyakarta and Solo. Batik Palace show environment, and carried out by palace servant who live outside the Palace. Kings relic pleased with paintings, and before the cotton yarn, painting is placed on the leaf Lontar. This is going around to the XIII century. This pattern is associated with batik-style on the texture. Characteristic of batik Cirebonan It is a great symbol image bermotifkan forests and wildlife. While the sea motif because the nature of thought dipengaruhioleh China, which the sultanate of Cirebon first daughter had changed China. Sementra batik Cirebonan garuda because the image is influenced by the motif batik Yogya and Solo.

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